Unfortunately, these conclusions cannot be confirmed through DNA fingerprinting which reduces validation and reliability, therefore, further analysis to confirm

Unfortunately, these conclusions cannot be confirmed through DNA fingerprinting which reduces validation and reliability, therefore, further analysis to confirm

DNA-17 Profiling. [Online]. 2019. Crown Prosecution Service. Available from: https://www.cps.gov.uk/legal-guidance/dna-17-profiling [Accessed: 5 May 2019].

  • Ferembach, D., (1980). Recommendations for age and sex diagnoses of skeletons. Journal of Human Evolution. 9(7), 517-549. Available from: doi:10.1016/0047-2484(80)90061-5.
  • Giles, E. and Elliot, O., (1963). Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of crania. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 21(1), 53-68. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330210108
  • Giles, E., (1970). Discriminant function sexing of the human skeleton. Personal Identification in Mass Disasters. In Stewart TD (ed.)99-107.
  • Krogman, W., (1962). The human skeleton in forensic medicine. American Journal of Orthodontics. 49(6), 474. Available from: doi:10.1016/0002-9416(63)90175-1.
  • McPherson, M., Quirke, P. & Taylor, G., (1992). PCR: a practical approach. Oxford, IRL.
  • Meindl, R. and Lovejoy, C., (1985). Ectocranial suture closure: A revised method for the determination of skeletal age at death based on the lateral-anterior sutures. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 68(1), 57-66. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330680106.
  • Miles, A., (1963). Dentition in the Estimation of Age. Journal of Dental Research. 42(1), 255-263. Available from: doi:10.1177/00220345630420012701
  • Molleson, T and Cox, M., (1993). The Spitalfields Project, Vol. 2: The Anthropology. The Middling Sort, Research Report 86. Council for British Archaeology: York.
  • NIDDK., (2012). Acromegaly | NIDDK. [online] National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/acromegaly [Viewed 21 April 2019].
  • Phenice, T., (1969). A newly developed visual method of sexing the os pubis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 30(2), 297-301. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330300214.
  • Rissech, C., Estabrook, G., Cunha, E. and Malgosa, A., (2006). Using the Acetabulum to Estimate Age at Death of Adult Males*. Journal of Forensic Sciences.  51(2), 213-229. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00060.x
  • Scheuer, L. & Black, S., (2004). The juvenile skeleton. London, Elsevier Academic Press.
  • Sutherland, L. and Suchey, J., (1991) Use of the Ventral Arc in Pubic Sex Determination. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 36(2), 13051J. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs13051j.
  • Todd, T., (1921). Age changes in the pubic bone. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 4(1), 1-70. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330040102
  • Trotter, M., (1970). Estimation of stature from intact long limb bones, in Stewart, T.D. (ed.), Personal Identification in Mass Disasters: National Museum of Natural History, Washington, 71-83.
  • Appendices

    Appendix A

    Feature

    Measurement (mm)

    Cranial length

    187.22

    Cranial breadth

    111.47

    Basion-bregma height

    138.67

    Bizygomatic breadth

    131.39

    Basion prosthion length

    121.63

    Nasion-prosthion line

    68.21

    Maxillo-alveolar breadth

    67.25

    Height of the processus mastoideus

    36.67

    These measurements were then inputted into the formula below to determine sex from the skull.

    Discriminant function formula (Giles & Elliot, 1963):

    (Cranial length*3.107) + (Cranial breadth*-4.643) + (Basion-bregma height*5.786) + (bizygomatic breadth*14.821) + (Basion prosthion length*1.000) + (Nasion-prosthion line*2.714) + (Maxillo-alveolar breadth*-5.179) + (Height of the processus mastoideus*6.071)

    If result is larger than 2676.39, the patient is male, if smaller than 2676.39, the patient is female.

    Appendix B

    Feature

    Measurement (mm)

    Hipbone height (A)

    212

    Iliac breadth (B)

    161

    Pubis length (C)

    71.675

    Ischium length (D)

    88.41

    Femur head diameter (E)

    45.45

    Epicondylar breadth of femur (F)

    75.26

    There measurements where then inputted into the formula below Albanese’s (2003) to determine sex from the pelvis and femur.

    Probability M/F=1(1+e–Z)

    Model 1, Z = -61.5345 + (0.595*A) – (0.5192*B) – (1.1104*D) + (1.1696*E) + (0.5893*F)

    Model 2, Z = -40.5313 + (0.2572*A) – (0.9852*C) + (0.7303*E) + (0.3177*F)

    Model 3, Z = -30.359 + (0.4323*A) – (0.2217*B) – (0.7404*C) + (0.3412*D)

    If P is greater than 0.5, the patient is male, if P is less than 0.5, the patient is female.

    Appendix C

    List of corresponding states and ages for each of the 7 acetabulum variables Rissech’s (2006)

    1. Acetabular groove
      • State 1 – predicted age: 41.6
    2. Acetabular rim shape
      • State 3 – predicted age: 45.9
    3. Acetabular rim porosity
      • State 2 – predicted age: 39
    4. Apex activity
      • State 1 – predicted age: 38.2
    5. Activity on the outer edge of the acetabular fossa
      • State 2 – predicted age: 32.3
    6. Activity of the acetabular fossa
      • State 3 – predicted age: 48.1
    7. Porosities of the acetabular fossa Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp  

    ap biology essay questions

    Therefore, to find a match, AFLP should be repeated ensuring there is adequate, unfragmented DNA along with an appropriate, high specificity primer. Primer dimers at the bottom of lane 9 suggests the primer concentration was too high, therefore, to avoid allelic dropout which may assume homozygosity, lower concentrations should be used when repeating.

    AFLP requires high quality and volume of DNA to prevent allelic dropout, however, it’s likely that this cannot be achieved from this DNA sample. Therefore, DNA-17 may provide better results because it requires less DNA due to improved sensitivity and discrimination between profiles (Crown Prosecution Service, 2019).

    Conclusion

    After analysing all results, one can estimate this was a European male aged between 32 and 43 who was 174cm tall, living with acromegaly. The likely cause of death is co-morbidity associated with acromegaly progression. Unfortunately, these conclusions cannot be confirmed through DNA fingerprinting which reduces validation and reliability, therefore, further analysis to confirm this individual’s identity could include more reliable methods involving molecular biology and bone chemistry.

    References

    • Albanese, J., (2003).  A Metric Method for Sex Determination Using the Hipbone and the Femur. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 48(2), 2001378. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs2001378.
    • Bass, W., (1978). Human osteology. Columbia, Mo., Missouri Archaeological Society, 196-208.
    • Black, T., (1978). Sexual dimorphism in the tooth-crown diameters of the deciduous teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 48(1), 77-82. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330480111.
    • Brooks, S. and Suchey, J., (1990). Skeletal age determination based on the os pubis: A comparison of the Acsádi-Nemeskéri and Suchey-Brooks methods. Human Evolution. 5(3), 227-238. Available from: doi:10.1007/bf02437238.
    • Carr, L., (1962). Eruption ages of permanent teeth. Australian Dental Journal. 7(5), 367-373. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.1962.tb04884.x.
    • Chapman, I., (2017). Gigantism and Acromegaly – Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders – MSD Manual Consumer Version. [Online]. 2017. MSD Manual Consumer Version. Available from: https://www.msdmanuals.com/en-gb/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/pituitary-gland-disorders/gigantism-and-acromegaly [Accessed: 27 April 2019].
    • Church, MS., (1995). Determination of Race from the Skeleton through Forensic Anthropological Methods. Forensic Science Review. 7(1), 1-39
    • Crown Prosecution Service., (2019). DNA-17 Profiling. [Online]. 2019. Crown Prosecution Service. Available from: https://www.cps.gov.uk/legal-guidance/dna-17-profiling [Accessed: 5 May 2019].
    • Ferembach, D., (1980). Recommendations for age and sex diagnoses of skeletons. Journal of Human Evolution. 9(7), 517-549. Available from: doi:10.1016/0047-2484(80)90061-5.
    • Giles, E. and Elliot, O., (1963). Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of crania. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 21(1), 53-68. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330210108
    • Giles, E., (1970). Discriminant function sexing of the human skeleton. Personal Identification in Mass Disasters. In Stewart TD (ed.)99-107.
    • Krogman, W., (1962). The human skeleton in forensic medicine. American Journal of Orthodontics. 49(6), 474. Available from: doi:10.1016/0002-9416(63)90175-1.
    • McPherson, M., Quirke, P. & Taylor, G., (1992). PCR: a practical approach. Oxford, IRL.
    • Meindl, R. and Lovejoy, C., (1985). Ectocranial suture closure: A revised method for the determination of skeletal age at death based on the lateral-anterior sutures. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 68(1), 57-66. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330680106.
    • Miles, A., (1963). Dentition in the Estimation of Age. Journal of Dental Research. 42(1), 255-263. Available from: doi:10.1177/00220345630420012701
    • Molleson, T and Cox, M., (1993). The Spitalfields Project, Vol. 2: The Anthropology. The Middling Sort, Research Report 86. Council for British Archaeology: York.
    • NIDDK., (2012). Acromegaly | NIDDK. [online] National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/acromegaly [Viewed 21 April 2019].
    • Phenice, T., (1969). A newly developed visual method of sexing the os pubis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 30(2), 297-301. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330300214.
    • Rissech, C., Estabrook, G., Cunha, E. and Malgosa, A., (2006). Using the Acetabulum to Estimate Age at Death of Adult Males*. Journal of Forensic Sciences.  51(2), 213-229. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00060.x
    • Scheuer, L. & Black, S., (2004). The juvenile skeleton. London, Elsevier Academic Press.
    • Sutherland, L. and Suchey, J., (1991) Use of the Ventral Arc in Pubic Sex Determination. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 36(2), 13051J. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs13051j.
    • Todd, T., (1921). Age changes in the pubic bone. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 4(1), 1-70. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330040102
    • Trotter, M., (1970). Estimation of stature from intact long limb bones, in Stewart, T.D. (ed.), Personal Identification in Mass Disasters: National Museum of Natural History, Washington, 71-83.

    Appendices

    Appendix A

    Feature

    Measurement (mm)

    Cranial length

    187.22

    Cranial breadth

    111.47

    Basion-bregma height

    138.67

    Bizygomatic breadth

    131.39

    Basion prosthion length

    121.63

    Nasion-prosthion line

    68.21

    Maxillo-alveolar breadth

    67.25

    Height of the processus mastoideus

    36.67

    These measurements were then inputted into the formula below to determine sex from the skull.

    Discriminant function formula (Giles & Elliot, 1963):

    (Cranial length*3.107) + (Cranial breadth*-4.643) + (Basion-bregma height*5.786) + (bizygomatic breadth*14.821) + (Basion prosthion length*1.000) + (Nasion-prosthion line*2.714) + (Maxillo-alveolar breadth*-5.179) + (Height of the processus mastoideus*6.071)

    If result is larger than 2676.39, the patient is male, if smaller than 2676.39, the patient is female.

    Appendix B

    Feature

    Measurement (mm)

    Hipbone height (A)

    212

    Iliac breadth (B)

    161

    Pubis length (C)

    71.675

    Ischium length (D)

    88.41

    Femur head diameter (E)

    45.45

    Epicondylar breadth of femur (F)

    75.26

    There measurements where then inputted into the formula below Albanese’s (2003) to determine sex from the pelvis and femur.

    Probability M/F=1(1+e–Z)

    Model 1, Z = -61.5345 + (0.595*A) – (0.5192*B) – (1.1104*D) + (1.1696*E) + (0.5893*F)

    Model 2, Z = -40.5313 + (0.2572*A) – (0.9852*C) + (0.7303*E) + (0.3177*F)

    Model 3, Z = -30.359 + (0.4323*A) – (0.2217*B) – (0.7404*C) + (0.3412*D)

    If P is greater than 0.5, the patient is male, if P is less than 0.5, the patient is female.

    Appendix C

    List of corresponding states and ages for each of the 7 acetabulum variables Rissech’s (2006)

    1. Acetabular groove
      • State 1 – predicted age: 41.6
    2. Acetabular rim shape
      • State 3 – predicted age: 45.9
    3. Acetabular rim porosity
      • State 2 – predicted age: 39
    4. Apex activity
      • State 1 – predicted age: 38.2
    5. Activity on the outer edge of the acetabular fossa
      • State 2 – predicted age: 32.3
    6. Activity of the acetabular fossa
      • State 3 – predicted age: 48.1
    7. Porosities of the acetabular fossa Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp  

    AFLP requires high quality and volume of DNA to prevent allelic dropout, however, it’s likely that this cannot be achieved from this DNA sample. Therefore, DNA-17 may provide better results because it requires less DNA due to improved sensitivity and discrimination between profiles (Crown Prosecution Service, 2019).

    Conclusion

    After analysing all results, one can estimate this was a European male aged between 32 and 43 who was 174cm tall, living with acromegaly. The likely cause of death is co-morbidity associated with acromegaly progression. Unfortunately, these conclusions cannot be confirmed through DNA fingerprinting which reduces validation and reliability, therefore, further analysis to confirm this individual’s identity could include more reliable methods involving molecular biology and bone chemistry.

    References

    • Albanese, J., (2003).  A Metric Method for Sex Determination Using the Hipbone and the Femur. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 48(2), 2001378. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs2001378.
    • Bass, W., (1978). Human osteology. Columbia, Mo., Missouri Archaeological Society, 196-208.
    • Black, T., (1978). Sexual dimorphism in the tooth-crown diameters of the deciduous teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 48(1), 77-82. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330480111.
    • Brooks, S. and Suchey, J., (1990). Skeletal age determination based on the os pubis: A comparison of the Acsádi-Nemeskéri and Suchey-Brooks methods. Human Evolution. 5(3), 227-238. Available from: doi:10.1007/bf02437238.
    • Carr, L., (1962). Eruption ages of permanent teeth. Australian Dental Journal. 7(5), 367-373. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.1962.tb04884.x.
    • Chapman, I., (2017). Gigantism and Acromegaly – Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders – MSD Manual Consumer Version. [Online]. 2017. MSD Manual Consumer Version. Available from: https://www.msdmanuals.com/en-gb/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/pituitary-gland-disorders/gigantism-and-acromegaly [Accessed: 27 April 2019].
    • Church, MS., (1995). Determination of Race from the Skeleton through Forensic Anthropological Methods. Forensic Science Review. 7(1), 1-39
    • Crown Prosecution Service., (2019). DNA-17 Profiling. [Online]. 2019. Crown Prosecution Service. Available from: https://www.cps.gov.uk/legal-guidance/dna-17-profiling [Accessed: 5 May 2019].
    • Ferembach, D., (1980). Recommendations for age and sex diagnoses of skeletons. Journal of Human Evolution. 9(7), 517-549. Available from: doi:10.1016/0047-2484(80)90061-5.
    • Giles, E. and Elliot, O., (1963). Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of crania. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 21(1), 53-68. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330210108
    • Giles, E., (1970). Discriminant function sexing of the human skeleton. Personal Identification in Mass Disasters. In Stewart TD (ed.)99-107.
    • Krogman, W., (1962). The human skeleton in forensic medicine. American Journal of Orthodontics. 49(6), 474. Available from: doi:10.1016/0002-9416(63)90175-1.
    • McPherson, M., Quirke, P. & Taylor, G., (1992). PCR: a practical approach. Oxford, IRL.
    • Meindl, R. and Lovejoy, C., (1985). Ectocranial suture closure: A revised method for the determination of skeletal age at death based on the lateral-anterior sutures. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 68(1), 57-66. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330680106.
    • Miles, A., (1963). Dentition in the Estimation of Age. Journal of Dental Research. 42(1), 255-263. Available from: doi:10.1177/00220345630420012701
    • Molleson, T and Cox, M., (1993). The Spitalfields Project, Vol. 2: The Anthropology. The Middling Sort, Research Report 86. Council for British Archaeology: York.
    • NIDDK., (2012). Acromegaly | NIDDK. [online] National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/acromegaly [Viewed 21 April 2019].
    • Phenice, T., (1969). A newly developed visual method of sexing the os pubis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 30(2), 297-301. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330300214.
    • Rissech, C., Estabrook, G., Cunha, E. and Malgosa, A., (2006). Using the Acetabulum to Estimate Age at Death of Adult Males*. Journal of Forensic Sciences.  51(2), 213-229. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00060.x
    • Scheuer, L. & Black, S., (2004). The juvenile skeleton. London, Elsevier Academic Press.
    • Sutherland, L. and Suchey, J., (1991) Use of the Ventral Arc in Pubic Sex Determination. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 36(2), 13051J. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs13051j.
    • Todd, T., (1921). Age changes in the pubic bone. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 4(1), 1-70. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330040102
    • Trotter, M., (1970). Estimation of stature from intact long limb bones, in Stewart, T.D. (ed.), Personal Identification in Mass Disasters: National Museum of Natural History, Washington, 71-83.

    Appendices

    Appendix A

    Feature

    Measurement (mm)

    Cranial length

    187.22

    Cranial breadth

    111.47

    Basion-bregma height

    138.67

    Bizygomatic breadth

    131.39

    Basion prosthion length

    121.63

    Nasion-prosthion line

    68.21

    Maxillo-alveolar breadth

    67.25

    Height of the processus mastoideus

    36.67

    These measurements were then inputted into the formula below to determine sex from the skull.

    Discriminant function formula (Giles & Elliot, 1963):

    (Cranial length*3.107) + (Cranial breadth*-4.643) + (Basion-bregma height*5.786) + (bizygomatic breadth*14.821) + (Basion prosthion length*1.000) + (Nasion-prosthion line*2.714) + (Maxillo-alveolar breadth*-5.179) + (Height of the processus mastoideus*6.071)

    If result is larger than 2676.39, the patient is male, if smaller than 2676.39, the patient is female.

    Appendix B

    Feature

    Measurement (mm)

    Hipbone height (A)

    212

    Iliac breadth (B)

    161

    Pubis length (C)

    71.675

    Ischium length (D)

    88.41

    Femur head diameter (E)

    45.45

    Epicondylar breadth of femur (F)

    75.26

    There measurements where then inputted into the formula below Albanese’s (2003) to determine sex from the pelvis and femur.

    Probability M/F=1(1+e–Z)

    Model 1, Z = -61.5345 + (0.595*A) – (0.5192*B) – (1.1104*D) + (1.1696*E) + (0.5893*F)

    Model 2, Z = -40.5313 + (0.2572*A) – (0.9852*C) + (0.7303*E) + (0.3177*F)

    Model 3, Z = -30.359 + (0.4323*A) – (0.2217*B) – (0.7404*C) + (0.3412*D)

    If P is greater than 0.5, the patient is male, if P is less than 0.5, the patient is female.

    Appendix C

    List of corresponding states and ages for each of the 7 acetabulum variables Rissech’s (2006)

    1. Acetabular groove
      • State 1 – predicted age: 41.6
    2. Acetabular rim shape
      • State 3 – predicted age: 45.9
    3. Acetabular rim porosity
      • State 2 – predicted age: 39
    4. Apex activity
      • State 1 – predicted age: 38.2
    5. Activity on the outer edge of the acetabular fossa
      • State 2 – predicted age: 32.3
    6. Activity of the acetabular fossa
      • State 3 – predicted age: 48.1
    7. Porosities of the acetabular fossa Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp  

    After analysing all results, one can estimate this was a European male aged between 32 and 43 who was 174cm tall, living with acromegaly. The likely cause of death is co-morbidity associated with acromegaly progression. Unfortunately, these conclusions cannot be confirmed through DNA fingerprinting which reduces validation and reliability, therefore, further analysis to confirm this individual’s identity could include more reliable methods involving molecular biology and bone chemistry.

    References

    • Albanese, J., (2003).  A Metric Method for Sex Determination Using the Hipbone and the Femur. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 48(2), 2001378. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs2001378.
    • Bass, W., (1978). Human osteology. Columbia, Mo., Missouri Archaeological Society, 196-208.
    • Black, T., (1978). Sexual dimorphism in the tooth-crown diameters of the deciduous teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 48(1), 77-82. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330480111.
    • Brooks, S. and Suchey, J., (1990). Skeletal age determination based on the os pubis: A comparison of the Acsádi-Nemeskéri and Suchey-Brooks methods. Human Evolution. 5(3), 227-238. Available from: doi:10.1007/bf02437238.
    • Carr, L., (1962). Eruption ages of permanent teeth. Australian Dental Journal. 7(5), 367-373. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.1962.tb04884.x.
    • Chapman, I., (2017). Gigantism and Acromegaly – Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders – MSD Manual Consumer Version. [Online]. 2017. MSD Manual Consumer Version. Available from: https://www.msdmanuals.com/en-gb/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/pituitary-gland-disorders/gigantism-and-acromegaly [Accessed: 27 April 2019].
    • Church, MS., (1995). Determination of Race from the Skeleton through Forensic Anthropological Methods. Forensic Science Review. 7(1), 1-39
    • Crown Prosecution Service., (2019). DNA-17 Profiling. [Online]. 2019. Crown Prosecution Service. Available from: https://www.cps.gov.uk/legal-guidance/dna-17-profiling [Accessed: 5 May 2019].
    • Ferembach, D., (1980). Recommendations for age and sex diagnoses of skeletons. Journal of Human Evolution. 9(7), 517-549. Available from: doi:10.1016/0047-2484(80)90061-5.
    • Giles, E. and Elliot, O., (1963). Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of crania. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 21(1), 53-68. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330210108
    • Giles, E., (1970). Discriminant function sexing of the human skeleton. Personal Identification in Mass Disasters. In Stewart TD (ed.)99-107.
    • Krogman, W., (1962). The human skeleton in forensic medicine. American Journal of Orthodontics. 49(6), 474. Available from: doi:10.1016/0002-9416(63)90175-1.
    • McPherson, M., Quirke, P. & Taylor, G., (1992). PCR: a practical approach. Oxford, IRL.
    • Meindl, R. and Lovejoy, C., (1985). Ectocranial suture closure: A revised method for the determination of skeletal age at death based on the lateral-anterior sutures. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 68(1), 57-66. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330680106.
    • Miles, A., (1963). Dentition in the Estimation of Age. Journal of Dental Research. 42(1), 255-263. Available from: doi:10.1177/00220345630420012701
    • Molleson, T and Cox, M., (1993). The Spitalfields Project, Vol. 2: The Anthropology. The Middling Sort, Research Report 86. Council for British Archaeology: York.
    • NIDDK., (2012). Acromegaly | NIDDK. [online] National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/acromegaly [Viewed 21 April 2019].
    • Phenice, T., (1969). A newly developed visual method of sexing the os pubis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 30(2), 297-301. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330300214.
    • Rissech, C., Estabrook, G., Cunha, E. and Malgosa, A., (2006). Using the Acetabulum to Estimate Age at Death of Adult Males*. Journal of Forensic Sciences.  51(2), 213-229. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00060.x
    • Scheuer, L. & Black, S., (2004). The juvenile skeleton. London, Elsevier Academic Press.
    • Sutherland, L. and Suchey, J., (1991) Use of the Ventral Arc in Pubic Sex Determination. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 36(2), 13051J. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs13051j.
    • Todd, T., (1921). Age changes in the pubic bone. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 4(1), 1-70. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330040102
    • Trotter, M., (1970). Estimation of stature from intact long limb bones, in Stewart, T.D. (ed.), Personal Identification in Mass Disasters: National Museum of Natural History, Washington, 71-83.

    Appendices

    Appendix A

    Feature

    Measurement (mm)

    Cranial length

    187.22

    Cranial breadth

    111.47

    Basion-bregma height

    138.67

    Bizygomatic breadth

    131.39

    Basion prosthion length

    121.63

    Nasion-prosthion line

    68.21

    Maxillo-alveolar breadth

    67.25

    Height of the processus mastoideus

    36.67

    These measurements were then inputted into the formula below to determine sex from the skull.

    Discriminant function formula (Giles & Elliot, 1963):

    (Cranial length*3.107) + (Cranial breadth*-4.643) + (Basion-bregma height*5.786) + (bizygomatic breadth*14.821) + (Basion prosthion length*1.000) + (Nasion-prosthion line*2.714) + (Maxillo-alveolar breadth*-5.179) + (Height of the processus mastoideus*6.071)

    If result is larger than 2676.39, the patient is male, if smaller than 2676.39, the patient is female.

    Appendix B

    Feature

    Measurement (mm)

    Hipbone height (A)

    212

    Iliac breadth (B)

    161

    Pubis length (C)

    71.675

    Ischium length (D)

    88.41

    Femur head diameter (E)

    45.45

    Epicondylar breadth of femur (F)

    75.26

    There measurements where then inputted into the formula below Albanese’s (2003) to determine sex from the pelvis and femur.

    Probability M/F=1(1+e–Z)

    Model 1, Z = -61.5345 + (0.595*A) – (0.5192*B) – (1.1104*D) + (1.1696*E) + (0.5893*F)

    Model 2, Z = -40.5313 + (0.2572*A) – (0.9852*C) + (0.7303*E) + (0.3177*F)

    Model 3, Z = -30.359 + (0.4323*A) – (0.2217*B) – (0.7404*C) + (0.3412*D)

    If P is greater than 0.5, the patient is male, if P is less than 0.5, the patient is female.

    Appendix C

    List of corresponding states and ages for each of the 7 acetabulum variables Rissech’s (2006)

    1. Acetabular groove
      • State 1 – predicted age: 41.6
    2. Acetabular rim shape
      • State 3 – predicted age: 45.9
    3. Acetabular rim porosity
      • State 2 – predicted age: 39
    4. Apex activity
      • State 1 – predicted age: 38.2
    5. Activity on the outer edge of the acetabular fossa
      • State 2 – predicted age: 32.3
    6. Activity of the acetabular fossa
      • State 3 – predicted age: 48.1
    7. Porosities of the acetabular fossa Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp  

    References

    • Albanese, J., (2003).  A Metric Method for Sex Determination Using the Hipbone and the Femur. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 48(2), 2001378. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs2001378.
    • Bass, W., (1978). Human osteology. Columbia, Mo., Missouri Archaeological Society, 196-208.
    • Black, T., (1978). Sexual dimorphism in the tooth-crown diameters of the deciduous teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 48(1), 77-82. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330480111.
    • Brooks, S. and Suchey, J., (1990). Skeletal age determination based on the os pubis: A comparison of the Acsádi-Nemeskéri and Suchey-Brooks methods. Human Evolution. 5(3), 227-238. Available from: doi:10.1007/bf02437238.
    • Carr, L., (1962). Eruption ages of permanent teeth. Australian Dental Journal. 7(5), 367-373. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.1962.tb04884.x.
    • Chapman, I., (2017). Gigantism and Acromegaly – Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders – MSD Manual Consumer Version. [Online]. 2017. MSD Manual Consumer Version. Available from: https://www.msdmanuals.com/en-gb/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/pituitary-gland-disorders/gigantism-and-acromegaly [Accessed: 27 April 2019].
    • Church, MS., (1995). Determination of Race from the Skeleton through Forensic Anthropological Methods. Forensic Science Review. 7(1), 1-39
    • Crown Prosecution Service., (2019). DNA-17 Profiling. [Online]. 2019. Crown Prosecution Service. Available from: https://www.cps.gov.uk/legal-guidance/dna-17-profiling [Accessed: 5 May 2019].
    • Ferembach, D., (1980). Recommendations for age and sex diagnoses of skeletons. Journal of Human Evolution. 9(7), 517-549. Available from: doi:10.1016/0047-2484(80)90061-5.
    • Giles, E. and Elliot, O., (1963). Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of crania. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 21(1), 53-68. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330210108
    • Giles, E., (1970). Discriminant function sexing of the human skeleton. Personal Identification in Mass Disasters. In Stewart TD (ed.)99-107.
    • Krogman, W., (1962). The human skeleton in forensic medicine. American Journal of Orthodontics. 49(6), 474. Available from: doi:10.1016/0002-9416(63)90175-1.
    • McPherson, M., Quirke, P. & Taylor, G., (1992). PCR: a practical approach. Oxford, IRL.
    • Meindl, R. and Lovejoy, C., (1985). Ectocranial suture closure: A revised method for the determination of skeletal age at death based on the lateral-anterior sutures. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 68(1), 57-66. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330680106.
    • Miles, A., (1963). Dentition in the Estimation of Age. Journal of Dental Research. 42(1), 255-263. Available from: doi:10.1177/00220345630420012701
    • Molleson, T and Cox, M., (1993). The Spitalfields Project, Vol. 2: The Anthropology. The Middling Sort, Research Report 86. Council for British Archaeology: York.
    • NIDDK., (2012). Acromegaly | NIDDK. [online] National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/acromegaly [Viewed 21 April 2019].
    • Phenice, T., (1969). A newly developed visual method of sexing the os pubis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 30(2), 297-301. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330300214.
    • Rissech, C., Estabrook, G., Cunha, E. and Malgosa, A., (2006). Using the Acetabulum to Estimate Age at Death of Adult Males*. Journal of Forensic Sciences.  51(2), 213-229. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00060.x
    • Scheuer, L. & Black, S., (2004). The juvenile skeleton. London, Elsevier Academic Press.
    • Sutherland, L. and Suchey, J., (1991) Use of the Ventral Arc in Pubic Sex Determination. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 36(2), 13051J. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs13051j.
    • Todd, T., (1921). Age changes in the pubic bone. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 4(1), 1-70. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330040102
    • Trotter, M., (1970). Estimation of stature from intact long limb bones, in Stewart, T.D. (ed.), Personal Identification in Mass Disasters: National Museum of Natural History, Washington, 71-83.

    Appendices

    Appendix A

    Feature

    Measurement (mm)

    Cranial length

    187.22

    Cranial breadth

    111.47

    Basion-bregma height

    138.67

    Bizygomatic breadth

    131.39

    Basion prosthion length

    121.63

    Nasion-prosthion line

    68.21

    Maxillo-alveolar breadth

    67.25

    Height of the processus mastoideus

    36.67

    These measurements were then inputted into the formula below to determine sex from the skull.

    Discriminant function formula (Giles & Elliot, 1963):

    (Cranial length*3.107) + (Cranial breadth*-4.643) + (Basion-bregma height*5.786) + (bizygomatic breadth*14.821) + (Basion prosthion length*1.000) + (Nasion-prosthion line*2.714) + (Maxillo-alveolar breadth*-5.179) + (Height of the processus mastoideus*6.071)

    If result is larger than 2676.39, the patient is male, if smaller than 2676.39, the patient is female.

    Appendix B